Research

The neuroscience is a very promising and potential discipline of life sciences and it comes to encompass a growing number and diversity of special research areas involving brains and the related central and peripheral tissues. The key topics of research and studies to understand and to unfold the mystry of brains and brain related functions are neurochemistry, neurophysiology, neurobiochemistry, developmental neurobiology, neuropharmacology, neurotoxicology, neuroimmunology, neuroendocrinolgy, neuroanatomy, organizational and chemical complexities of nervous system, nerve impulse conduction and transmission, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, neurotransmitters-mediating enzymes, their purifications, characterizations and genetics and molecular biology and chromozomal studies. Other important neurochemical research areas on brains are: to understand the processes of memory and learning, artificial intelligence, thinking, dreams, sleep, sex, mood, neurobehavior, emotion of higher animals including the humans. The details of neurochemical, biochemical, genetics and molecular biology studies and treatment aspects are not yet clearly understood of most of the brain diseases, like, Parkinson’s disease, Wilson disease, Huntington disease, schizophrenia, Shy-Drager Syndrome, Perioral Dyskenesia, Manic Depressive Illness. The visual processes, listening, pains, love, affection, sex, cardiovascular regulation, muscle contraction- relaxation, mood, behavior, mania, tremors of hands-legs-bones, feelings of hot and cold, annoyingness, temperature control of body, feelings of touches, excitement, and thousands other functions are controlled and performed by the various parts of brains, but the exact mechanisms of these processes are not yet known.

Most of the tissues or parts of brains, like, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, colliculi, thalamus, hypothalamus, caudate nucleus, brain stem, attached part of spinal cord, etc., are involved in life saving jobs and they can be seen by the naked eyes after opening the skull of the brain. Pituitary glands, pineal gland are situated in side the brain, they are simply the glands of the brain. There are usually two types of cells in the brain, namely, the neuron cells and the glial cells. There are billions of neuron cells in the brains. A neuron or nerve cell is electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrochemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via synapses (the tiny space between two neurons or between a neuron and a cell (called pre- and post-synaptic neurons or cells). Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. The glial cells are meant to help solely the neuron cells in many respects. In humans, the neuron cells are grown within 30 months of birth, after then they are only matured and once they are degenerated, they are not regenerated in the brains, the research on the regeneration of the neurons are very burning theme of research in neuroscience but glial cells are degenerating and regenerating in the brains throughout the whole life. Lots of studies are to be performed to understand the underlying mechanism of all these brain topics.

Some Pioneering Researches on Neurosciences has been done for the fisrt time in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dhaka University. But we need to do more higher levels of studies on neuromethodologies, physiology, biochemistry and treatments on neurological patients of Bangladesh. The depressive illness is increasing tremendously in Bangladesh and also in the other countries of the world due to the various neurological diseases that cause the increasing depressive activities of the brains. The roles and links of various neurotransmitters are almost established with these diseases as found by rigorous research in the developed nations, and the partial treatments are also available there and in some cases the patients various neurological and psychological diseases are keeping themselves healthy. There is no such research center in Bangladesh, as a result our treatment on medical science of Neuro Medicine Department are dependent on the research results of these diseases in foreign countries to apply some of them successfully in our patients.

A new independent institute, named, National Institute of Neuroscience (NINS), under the Ministry of Health has been established to perform the diagnosis and treatment of neurological patients.This institute and the Neuroscience Research Center of Dhaka University would be able to do a lot of collaborative researches in neuroscience in Bangladesh.Moreover, there are neuromedicine
departments in Dhaka Medical College, Sir Salimullah Medical College and Shed shahrawardy Medical College in Dhaka. Before 2010, MD in Neuromedicine Degree was offered by the Dhaka University 2 Medicine Science Faculty, at present the same Degree is offered by the Banga Bandu Sheikh Mujib Medical University.The Neuroscience Research Center of Dhaka University would be able to develop excellent collaborative research activities with all these departments in Bangladesh as well as those of other Organizations/ Universities of foreign countries.

Article 2: Objectives
The key topics of research and studies to understand and to unfold the mystry of brains and brain related functions are neurochemistry, neurophysiology, neurobiochemistry, developmental neurobiology, neuropharmacology, neurotoxicology, neuroimmunology, neuroendocrinolgy, neuroanatomy, organizational and chemical complexities of nervous system, nerve impulse conduction and transmission, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, neurotransmitters-mediating enzymes, their purifications, characterizations and genetics and molecular biology and chromozomal studies. Other important neurochemical research areas on brains are: to understand the processes of memory and learning, artificial intelligence, thinking, dreams, sleep, sex, mood, neurobehavior, emotion of higher animals including the humans. The details of neurochemical, biochemical, genetics and molecular biology studies and treatment aspects are not yet clearly understood of most of the brain diseases, like, Parkinson’s disease, Wilson disease, Huntington disease, schizophrenia, Shy-Drager Syndrome, Perioral Dyskenesia, Manic Depressive Illness. The visual processes, listening, pains, love, affection, sex, cardiovascular regulation, muscle contraction- relaxation, mood, behavior, mania, tremors of hands-legs-bones, feelings of hot and cold, annoyingness, temperature control of body, feelings of touches, excitement, and thousands other functions are controlled and performed by the various parts of brains, but the exact mechanisms of these processes are not yet known.

Some of the Proposed Research Topics of the Neuroscience Research Center of Dhaka University:
1. Structures and Functions of Neurons and Neuroglia
2. Nerve Impulse Conduction and Transmission
3. Neurotransmitters and Neurotransmitters-Mediating Enzymes
(a) Acetylcholine (Ach) and Cholinergic Neurons
(b) Putative Excitatory Neurons: Glutamate and Aspartate
(c) Inhibitory Amino Acid Neuron: GABA and Gltycine
(d) Catecholamine Neurons: Dopamine, Noradrenaline and Adrenaline
(e) Indolamine or Serotonin Neuroatesn: Anatomy, Metabolim, Physiology, Sleep, Sex, etc.
(f) Promising Peptides: Substance P, Enkephalins, Endorphins, Neurotensin, Vassopresin, Oxytocin,Angiotensin,

4. Putative Transmitters and Transmitters Candidate:Histamine, Octopamine, Tyramine, Tryptamine.
5. Assay Methods, Purifications, Characterizations and Neurochemical and Molecular Biology and Genetic Aspects of Catacholamines and Indolaminene Neurotransmitters-Mediating Enzymes:Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) or (L-DOPA-Decarboxylase and 5- Hydroxy Tryptophan Decarboxylase), Dopamine-β-Hydroxylase (DBH) .
6. Screening of Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh to isolate, purify and characterize the neuro active compounds from these plants.
7. Neurochemical, Biochemical, Molecular Biology and Genetic aspects of the following Brain Diseases: Parkinsons’ Disease-, Schizophrenia, Hodgkins, Wilson Disease, Hungtinton diseases, Perioral dyskynesia,Shy-Drager Syndrome, Epilepsy,etc.

8. Cofactors of Neurotransmitters Mediating Enzymes.
9. Various psychotropic drugs which affect mood and behavior, anesthetic, sedative, hypotonic, nercotic, anticonvulsants, analgesics and a variety of drugs that affect the autonomic nervous systems.
10. Neuropeptides and Neuromodulator
11. Molecular Biology of Brain Enzymes:
(i)Human Genes of CA-synthesizing Enzymes – TH gene, AADC gene, PNMT gene
12. Axon Guidance Molecules and Roles in Neurodegenerative Diseases
13. Axon guidance cue, netrin, Slit, Sema phorins, Ephrins, Draxin, etc and their reception.
15. Foods and Nutrients Effects on Brains.
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